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  Present Perfect Tense
 

 

PRESENT PERFECT TENSE
1.Present Perfect Tense'in Yapısı:

Türkçe'de karşıtı bulunmayan bu zaman Türk öğrenciler tarafından kavranması oldukca güç olmaktadır. Bu zaman iki ögeden meydana gelmektedir. Birincisi aynen geniş zamanda kullandığımız şekliyle 'have' yardımcı fiilidir. İkincisi ise esas fiil olarak kullanacağımız fiilin ücüncü şeklidir.
Fiilin ücüncü şekli fiile -ed eklenerek yapılan Regular Verbs (Düzenli Fiiler) ya da fiilin değişime uğradığı Irregular Verbs (Düzensiz Fiiller)'dir.

 

Olumlu (Subject + have + verb 3)
 
 
I
have
studied English.
You
have
given the clues.
He
has
read the book.
She
has
visited the museum.
It
has
flown.
We
have
bought a new car.
They
have
gone to New York.
Olumsuz (Subject + have not + verb 3)
 
 
I
haven't
written the letter.
You
haven't
replied.
He
hasn't
watched the film.
She
hasn't
cooked the meal.
It
hasn't
drunk the milk.
We
haven't
asked the question.
They
haven't
completed the construction.
Soru (Have + Subject + Verb 3)
 
 
Have
I
asked that question?
Have
You
read the newspaper?
Has
he
clarified the problem?
Has
she
had an accident?
Has
it
climbed the wall?
Have
we
solve the problem?
Have
they
sold the house?
Olumsuz Soru (Have not + subject + verb 3)
Haven't
I
read that book?
Haven't
You
painted the room?
Hasn't
he
known that?
Hasn't
she
played the piano?
Hasn't
it
worked out?
Haven't
we
warned them?
Haven't
they
gone to the meeting?

Örnek 1: to work,

Olumlu
Olumsuz
Soru
I have worked
I haven't worked
Have I worked?
You have worked
You haven't worked
Have you worked?
He, she, it has worked
He, she, it hasn't worked
Has he,she,it worked
We have worked
We haven't worked
Have we worked?
You have worked
You haven't worked
Have you worked?
They have worked
They haven't worked
Have they worked?

 

Örnek 2: to go,

Olumlu
Olumsuz
Soru
I have gone
I haven't gone
Have I gone?
You have gone
You haven't gone
Have you gone?
He, she, it has gone
He, she, it hasn't gone
Has he,she,it gone
We have gone
We haven't gone
Have we gone?
You have gone
You haven't gone
Have you gone?
They have gone
They haven't gone
Have they gone?

2. Kullanım
Present Perfect Tense geçmiş ile şu an arasındaki bağlantıyı göstermek için kullanılır. Eylem daha önce başlamıştır ama belirsizdir ve eylemin kendisinden çok sonucu önemlidir.
Present perfect Tense'in kullanılışı:
1. Hal ya da eylem geçmişte başlamıştır ve şu anda devam etmektedir.
Örneğin: I have lived in Afyon since 1995 (= and I still do.)

2. Bir süredir devam eden eylem henüz tamamlanmamıştır.
Örneğin: She has been to the theatre five times this week(= and the month isn't over yet.)

3. Geçmiş ile şu an arasında belirsiz bir zaman diliminde tekrarlanan bir eylemi anlatır.
Örneğin: We have visited Cyprus several times.

4.Çok yakın bir geçmişte tamamlanmış bir eylemi anlatır. (just zarfı ile ifade edilir.)
Örneğin: I have just finished my homework.

5. Zamanı önemsiz olan bir eylemi anlatır.
Örneğin: He has read'Great Gatsby'. (Kitabın okunması yani sonuç önemlidir.)
Önemli Not: when, where, who sorularına ayrıntılı cevaplar vermek istediğimizde , simple past tense kullanırız..
Örneğin: He read 'Great Gatsby' last week.
Örnekler:
1. Geçmişte başlamış ve şu anda devam eden eylemler.
a. They haven't lived here for years.
b. She has worked in the bank for five years.
c. We have had the same car for ten years.
d. Have you played the piano since you were a child?
2. Bir süredir devam eden ve tamamlanmamış eylemler.
a. I have worked hard this week.
b. It has raineda lot this year.
c. We haven't seen her today.
3. Geçmiş ile şu an arasında belirsiz bir zaman diliminde tekrarlanan eylemler.
a. They have seen that film four times.
b. It has happenedseveral times already.
c. She has visited them frequently.
d. We have drunk coffee at that cafe many times.

4.Yakın geçmişte tamamlanmış eylemler (+just).
a. Have you just finished work?
b. I have just eaten.
c. We have just watched the program.
d. Has he just arrive?

5. Zamanı belirsiz ya da önemsiz olan eylemler.
a. Someone has eaten my cake!
b. Have you seen'Life's an Adventure?
c. She's studiedGeograpy, Maths and Science.
 
 
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